District Flash Statistics and Profile
District Flash Statistics: as in accordance to the latest 2001 census
|Total Geographical Area||3819 Sq. Kms|
|Total Agricultural Area of all Crops||3,81,000 Hect.|
|Number of Sub-Divisions||2|
|Number of Blocks||5|
|Number of Villages (2001 Census)||450|
|Number of Households (2001 Census)||41,547|
|Number of Assembly Constituencies||7|
|Total Population (2001 census)||2,95,692|
|Density of Population||77 (per Sq.Km.)|
|Literacy Percentage (2001 Census)|
|Number of Colleges (2006)|
|Educational Institutes (2006)|
|Number of High Schools|
|Number of M.E. Schools|
|Number of L.P. Schools|
|Health Centers (2006)|
|Number of Hospitals||1|
|Number of Dispensaries||1|
|Number of Community Health Centers||4|
|Number of Primary Health Centres||4|
|Post Offices (2006)|
|Number of Post Offices||1|
|Number of Sub-Post Offices||5|
|Number of Branch Offices||75|
|Telegraph Offices (2006)|
|Number of Telephone Exchanges||21|
|Number of Telephone subscribers||5574|
|Number of Banks (2004)||29|
|Number of Police Stations (2006)||3|
|Number of Outpost (2006)||4|
|Fair Price Shops|
|Number of Fair Price Shops (2002)||190|
|Transport & Vehicles|
|Number of Vehicles Registered (2005)||1082|
Jaintia Hills being a component of the Meghalaya Plateau has its physiographical features almost similar to that of Khasi Hills. The only difference is that Jaintia Hills has comparably more flat topography with a mild gradient. The Hills gently slope towards Brahmaputra valley of Assam in the North and overlook the gentle plains of Bangladesh in the South. The Marangksih peak on the Eastern plateau of Jaintia Hills stands majestically at the elevation of 1631 meters from the mean sea level of Karachi and is the highest peak in the entire District. The main elevation of the District ranges between 1050m to 1350m with Jowai which was established in the year 1972 as its Headquarter lies on the central plateau. In general, the whole District is full of rugged and undulating terrains with the exception of the deep gorges, steep precipice and narrow valleys carved out by the rivers of Umngot, Myntdu, Lukha, Myntang and a good number of other turbulent streams that drain out all over the District. The Jaintia Hills is richly endowed with natural resources and in the by gone days was endowed with rich flora and fauna. But gradually, the harmony and quintessence of this remarkable eco-system have been disturbed and degraded by various ecological and alike physical factors viz. unscientific mining operation, deforestation, jhuming, soil erosion etc. etc coupled with population pressure. However, with the moratorium recently imposed by the Supreme Court of India on the felling down of trees for commercial purposes such renewable forest resources are being replenished and the fading scenery is being rejuvenated and restored to its pristine glory and nature making the land fit for god to live in.
The population of the district as per the 1991 census is 2,20,473 out of which 1,99,872 are the ruralites and 20601 are the urbanites. The population of Scheduled Tribes is 2,10,558 whereas the number of persons belonging to Scheduled Castes is only 747 and others is 9168. The population of male and female is 111753 and 108720 respectively. The demographic figures depicting the occupational structure in the District according to 1991 census is 99,848 out of which 59,114 are cultivators, 15,159 are Agril. laborers and 25,575 other workers. The Total number of Marginal workers is 2538. The density of population as per 1991 Census is 58 persons per 1km square and the population for Jowai conglomeration is 20601 souls.
The general Geological formation of the District is characterized by the presence of rocks belonging to the age group of Achaean and tertiary. The plateau is composed of granites, phyllite, genesis, sandstone and limestone. This is more or less identical with the other parts of Meghalaya plateau. Climate :-Although Jaintia Hills, like Khasi Hills is enjoying a remarkably pleasant climate, yet rainfall profile is very high during the South -West monsoon, which usually starts from the middle of May and declines towards the last part of September. Jowai town experienced a rainfall of 1854.20mm in the month of June during the year 2000. The intensity of rainfall in the District during the last few years has registered a rising trend, due to the untimely vagary of monsoon coupled by the existence of fogs, mists and nimbus clouds which loom large during the rainy season, the indiscriminate felling down of trees, jhuming, unscientific extraction of coal and other ecology degrading factors. This phenomenon has brought about high percolation rate which resulted in soil erosion. The minimum and maximum temperature recorded at Jowai town during 2000 is 14 degree centigrade and 24 degree centigrade respectively. The Percentage of relative humidity in Jowai is 85% in the month of October and 30% in the month of February 1999.
The District is very rich in natural resources. The heavy and long monsoon supports of luxuriant forest of pine over the plateau and deciduous forest along its fringe areas against the plains. Statistically, during 1997-98 an area of 1436.11 Sq.kms is clothed with forest against the State figure of 8919.15 Sq.Kms. The intensity of deforestation has been reduced to a lesser degree and an appreciable extent with the judgment passed by the Supreme Court in December 1996 restricting the wanton felling down of trees for business purposes. However, consumption of firewood being used as fuel for cooking purposes and jhum cultivation are still the principal causes of deforestation and environmental degradation which resulted in poor deliquescence, abnormal hygroscopicity; soil erosion, reduced soil fertility etc etc. The District is enormously endowed with coal deposits particularly in Bapung, Lakadong, Chyrmang, Musiang Lamare, Sutnga, Iooksi, Rymbai, Byrwai, Jarain area etc. The District is also endowed with rich limestone deposits in Lumshnong, Nongkhlieh, Sutnga, Lakadong, Syndai and Nongtalang areas which call for the generation of the export promotion schemes. Besides these, the District is also known for fireclay at Larnai. The fireclay is of good quality and is suitable for firebricks. Nodules and outcrops of Phosphorite minerals have also been traced out in the District. Extraction of all these minerals should be plan-oriented especially because they are the non-renewable resources. Jaintia Hills District has also a very good potential on useable water resources for hydroelectric projects. Presently, the proposal for Myntdu Lekha HE Project-I is already at the anvil. The Kupli HE Project situated in the Border of the Jaintia Hills with the North Cachar Hills District of Assam has already been commissioned.
Ecology and Environment
In the past Jaintia Hills District is blessed with a rich flora and fauna and as such it is of sylvan beauty. These are gradually fading away due to the large scale denudation of forests for lumbering business purposes and human encroachment towards the habitat. As we are aware of the fact that the survival of natural vegetation is influenced mainly by four factors viz. climatic, edaphic, geomorphic and biotic factors. Plants modify the physical environment by creating shades, shelters, niches and foodstuff for birds and animals to feed and live in. The disturbance of the symbiotic system or harmonious interdependence between plants and animals by the jhummias, carpenters and firewood consumers in the District has upset the equilibrium of the ecosystem. The moratorium on the felling of trees for commercial purposes in the year 1996 by the Apex Court of India, has prevented forests from being dwindled at a faster rate than ever. The present modus operandi for coal extraction is unscientific and is on the large scale perspective. This has aggravated the ecological and environmental problems. The only remedial measures to solve the ecological problem is by way of extensive aforestation, effective soil conservation and water resources management programs. In addition to which wildlife protection, scientific extraction of minerals and better technology-oriented education policy are other efficacious measures that are to be adopted.
Transportation and Communication
Jowai the Headquarter of the District is connected with Shillong and Silchar by N.H.44. All five block Headquarters in the district have also been connected by roads. Important places connected by metalled roads are Khanduli, Garampani and Dawki. Recently, Jowai-Amlarem-Dawki road has been declared as National Highway. Khliehriat has already grown into a township. The Ladrymbai area is also growing very fast and in due course will conglomerate with Khliehriat town.
One can reach Jowai ( Hq) by Sumos, Indicas, Buses that ply on the road starting from the Jowai Stand, Shillong ( near Anjali Cinema Hall). The cost will vary from Rs.40 (Sumos), Rs. 50 (Indicas) and Rs. 30 (Buses) per head.
Jowai town is well connected with the rest of the country by the S.T.D. facilities availed by the telecom company BSNL.
|Nongstoin||159||Baghmara (via Tura)||511||Saipung||84|